I started doing research on CNC spindles for a future workbook.  Things have been going well, so I thought I would share some of my research until the book is released.

I actually started my research a few years back. Back then, the Chinese VFDs and spindles were rough. In just a few years the Chinese VFDs and spindles have come a long way in both quality control and features.  On the two spindles I just purchased both had less than  .0003" run-out. This alone makes them a great upgrade over even the best router.

Purchasing Options

I have found the VFDs and spindles mentioned below on both Ebay and Amazon, I strongly recommend purchasing through Amazon, as you have a lot more options if unit does not work properly.

I also recommend you test both the VFD and spindle as soon as you receive them. IF something does not work, the sooner you contact the seller, the better off you will be.

Note that I have posted Amazon links to the VFDs I have purchased and tested. Note that if you purchase from a different source, your results will vary.


To start, I will be covering two Chinese 2.2Kw VFDs.  I chose these two because they are inexpensive and offer most of the features of the more expensive units.  They are also very popular and well worth the price tag. 

Both VFDs go by the model number of HY02D223B, but that is all they have in common.

I will identify one unit as Type 1 and the other as Type 2.  


Identifying HY02D223B Type 1

This is the more advanced of the two units and offers many more features than Type 1.  This comes with two caveats though.  Type 1 is more expensive and more complicated to setup.


Type 1 can be identified as by the LEDs at the top of its display.  

They include:


In addition to the main panel the Type 1 VFD has two green terminal blocks shown here.





Identifying HY02D223B Type 2

This is the simpler of the two units. Type 2 is cheaper of the two and very easy to setup and get running in both manual and controlled by Mach3.  This unit does not support Modbus control, but can be controled via a PWM signal from Mach3.

Type 2 can be identified as by the LEDs at the top of its display.  

They include:


The Type 2 VFD has only one row of green terminal blocks.



I will be covering manual control, POT control, and Mach3 control of both units in detail.


Test Bed

I will be interfacing the VFDs and spindles to the following machines while doing my research. 

The first machine is a KRMx02 (build size 27"x30") machine.

This machine sports a Geckodrive G540 controller and a PC with Mach3.

The second is a smaller machine I built a while ago.  I have configurations with both a Sainsmart  and Geckodrive G540 controllers using a PC and Mach3.